This book is a translation of parts of the Balestrand 1 Ættesoge. The book are published by Balestrand kommune in 1985 and the text is their property. The excerpt from the book is Chapter 50 Bøyum which also contains information about "Tuftane", Crofters and Øyjordi. The information in this document stops around year 1900. The basis for the translation is to give families in the US insight into Bøyum area in Fjærland in Sogn. In connection with the translation of the text, there might be errors since the text is not translated by professional translators. Please ignore any misuse of words etc., the translation is done with the best intentions.

Bøyum area

The name was written "Bøum" in 1579, "Bøyum" in 1667, "Bøyom" in 1723. The name is from old Norwegian "bær" that farm in the majority. The name is from old Norwegian "berries" which are farms in plural. The foremost farms have otherwise been called "Tuftane" after the old Norwegian "tupt" or homesteads in plural. We will first look at "Bøyum" and since "Tuftane".


Bøyum was crown land from the 1600s onwards. But in 1650 it was sold or may pawned for silver treasure to Lector Peder Flem and his wife Abel Ludviksdtr. Munthe (bishop's daughter). In 1686 had dwellers Hans Clausen became the owner, and his coming the farm over to the bailiff in Sogn, Hans Blix. It was a descendant of the bailiff who sold to the farmers. In 1600 there were three farms in Bøyum, but before 1800 century was reached, had the farm turned into 7 farms.


The foremost farms on Bøyum was written Tufte until the 19'th century and is called Tuftane up to this day. Originally it was just one farm on Tufte, and the king was owner. In 1563 there was a "Stilach" who was using the farm. Stillaug used farm in 1601 so we think that this was the same man. He died in 1605, when the widow and Hans are user on the farm. His wife was Anna Bårdsdtr.. Hans was the last one had Tufte alone. In 1640, he had with him a Knut who was married to Ingeborg Hansdtr., which probably was the daughter of Hans. Now we see no more of Knud, but instead came Bård Hansson. After Hans had shared consumption by two of his sons were 3 farms on Tufte and and so it was quite into the 19'th century.

Bøyum farm 1

A Botolv had Bøyum in 1563, and in 1567 named farmer Halstein. In their time Bøyum one farm, from what is seen today. One does not know much about the owners before 1611 when a Amund owns the farm, he is here to 1628, and then took his son Knut Åmundson control. He had the farm until he died about 1655. The widow, Ingeborg Hansdtr. married again with Arne Arneson Fjærestad, brother of Jon who had a farm "Tuftane". Arne leasehold half yard, the others were farm 2. Arne Fjærestad was born about 1623 and died in 1703. He had been married again but Ingrid Hermundsdtr. who died in 1721. Arne had three children by himself, Eirik got the family farm, Gertrude married Lars Supphellen and Ingeborg who probably married Mons Eggum.
Eirik Arneson was born about 1675 and died in 1768. He leased by Hans Clausen in 1700. His wife was named Kari Sjursdtr.. She died in 1773. No one knows where she came from. Eric and his wife had seven children who were growing up: Arne inherited the farm, Knut who married to "Tenningen", but lived until recently at Hjelseng. Ola married Gørid Amundsdtr. and stayed at Bøyum. They had no children. Hermund married widow at Eggum and died there. Markus came to Bale, Sjur serve a time in Bergen at Mrs. Torneby but died at home and unmarried in 1800. Ingrid married Botolv Eintorn.
Arne Erikson was born about 1722 and married in 1769 with Gurid Åmundsdtr. Høgeim. Arne had leasehold of 1765, but were freehold in 1772. He bought when consumption of student Peder Atche and his two sisters. Arne paid 165 rdl. for the farm. It was not long Arne was the owner. He died already in 1775. He left the widow and three children: Eric, Synneva and Arne. His widow remarried with Ola Håvardson Dræge and they had a son together, Åmund.
Gurid died in 1786. Of her children, it was Eirik who inherited the farm. Synneva married Lars Olson Skeie, Arne died unmarried and Åmund worked on Bøyum in 1801 and since then there is no trace of him.
Ola Håvardson (Eirik's stepfather) controlled the farm to 1887. He remarried with Sofie Palnesdtr. Osen from Feios. They had no children. Eirik Arneson was born in 1770 and was in 1794 married Brita Ellensdtr. Tufte. She died in 1804, leaving behind her husband and four children: Arne, Ellend, Ola and Brita. Eirik remarried with Anna Olsdtr. Skeie. She bore him no children. Of the four children with his first wife was the only Arne and Ellend who became adults. They were both on Bøyum a time, but emigrated finally to America.
Arne Erikson was born in 1794 and married in 1834 with Brita Jonsdtr. Skeie. They owned the farm from 1848, then they traveled to America. They then had four children: Eric, Nils, Jon and Ellend.

Anders and Gørid

It was Anders Johannesson Bøyum son of John Sjurson Huke who bought the farm of Arne. Anders was born in 1825 and married Gjørid Mikkjelsdtr. Mundal in 1846. They had a total of 9 children. Of these inherited Johannes farm Mikkjel moved to Skarestad, Ivar went to America, Ola got a part in Tufte (Elevtun), Gertrude married Supphellen, Kari to Tufte, Unni to Mundal, Brita married Knut Hansson Tufte and emigrated to America, and Synneva married Ola Torson Våtevik. Along with Sjur Johanneson Bøyum bought Anders in 1849 Hans Endreson farm in Bøyum. Half of this farm has since been owned Bøyum farm 1.
John Andersson who inherited the farm after farenble born in 1858 and married Anna Eiriksdtr. Berge. Their children were: Andres who inherited the farm, Gjørid married Mons Dale, Synniva who was unmarried, Brita married to School Manager Oddmund Bøyum, Gertrude teacher in Åsane, Elen teacher in Birtevarra and Unni nurse in Tjølling.
After it completes son Anders Johanneson who owns the farm. He was married to Turid Andersdtr. Mundal.

Bøyum farm 2

It was probably around 1655 the farm was split from the farm 1, and first user was Elling Knutson who was probably the son of Knut Aamundsen who owned both farm 1 and farm 2 and used it as one farm. Elling was born about 1633 and died in 1702. What we know about Ellingh were of those who were often late with tax. Once he had sued Hermund Bøyum who had said about the daughter of Elling that she "had done something rude in a ambar" (a tree bowl that was used for storage and transport of milk, butter, porridge and other milk products). Hermund cut away and blamed that were not sued correctly. The court said to Elling that the whole thing was little to worry about. It was a was a teen and children dash, first brought to the ground by Ola Bjørnson.
The wife of Elling was named Marta Larsdtr. With her had to have seven children who were adults: Knut who came to Stadheim in Vik, Lars came to Tufte, Hans married Rebekka Josefsdtr. which surname to judge must be from Sunnfjord or Jølster. They stayed at Bøyum. Ola Ellingson got father's farm, Brita married Lars Heggestad Hafslo, Marita with Kjell Bøyum and Anna was married to Gunnar Huke.
Ola Ellingson was born about 1676 and married a Kirsti Rasmundsdtr.. Where she came from we do not know. What we see if he Ola was that he was sued by Ola Mundal because he had insulted his wife's parents. Later sued Ola one Tor Distad for verbal abuse. There was a settlement, and it was determined that drunkenness was to blame. Ola had the farm to about 1740 and died in 1750. His wife died in 1748. They had 4 children by himself, John got the farm, Rasmus who was in Bøyum, Marta married Ola Arnfinnson Bale and Brita with Lasse Johanneson Åfet.
Johannes Olson was born about 1710 and died in 1789. He married Brita Amundsdtr. Øyjordi. They had many children, but only three grew up. Johannes Olson was the first self-owner of the farm. In 1761, he bought 1 pd. 21 mrk. by bailiff Hans Leganger 90 rdl. Of his kids Ola got his father's farm, Elling joined Våtevik, Sjovat had a time a farm in Vangsnes and Åmund married the widow in Eitorn.
Ola Johannesson was born in 1744 and was in 1770 married to Mari Nilsdtr. Skeie. She died in 1781 and Ola biftet again with Randi Asbjørnsdtr. Bergum. She bore him no children. With his first wife had Ola 2 daughters: Brita and Marta. Marta married Lars Johannesson Våtevik and Brita married Elling Larsson Tufte. He was probably the son of Lars Johannesson Våtevik and Guri Ivarsdtr. Skarestad. He was named Våtevik and have probably lived there. It was Elling who received the farm after his father in law.
Elling Larsson was born in 1777 and was married to Brita Bøyum in 1799. She died in 1807, leaving behind her husband and two children: Ola and Mari. Elling remarried with Kirsti Gutormsdtr. Langeteid. She had no children. Of the children he had with his first wife got Ola father's farm while Mari was married to Ola Olson Mundal.

Ola E. Bøyum

Ola Ellingson was born in 1802 and was in 1833 married to Synneva Mansdtr. Tufte. They had a daughter, who in 1855 Knut Olson Våtevik. They had 5 children: Ola got the farm, Eirik, who was unmarried, Knut came to Frekeland, Elling beacon to America, Eli married Andreas Vell Field Hafslo, Oline married to Langeteid and Synneva to Stølen.
Ola Knutson was born in 1855 and was married to Brita Hansdtr. Grinde. They had 3 children: Knut who took over father's farm, Turid who married Mikkjel Mundal who had a use in Tufte and Berta married to Skarestad.
Knut Olson had the farm after this and was married to Malena Persdtr. Tang from Haflso.

Bøyum farm 3

When Ola Ellingson died in 1750 the son Rasmus got part of farm 2, and it is this we now call Farm 3.
Rasmus Olson was born in 1716 and married the widow Agata Olsdtr. Stølen in 1742. She died in 1775 and Rasmus in 1787. Rasmus bought his share of Bøyum from the same who sold farm 2 to his brother Johannes.
Rasmus and Agata had 2 sons: Ola and Anders. Ola got his father's farm, and Anders was married to a widow in Vangsnes and got a farm there.
Ola Rasmunsson was born in 1743 and married in 1775 with Gørids Arnfinnsdtr. Vårstølen. Ola died i1803 and had by his wife and two children, Arnfinn and Agata. Arnfinn inherit the farm and Agata died unmarried.
Arnfinn Olson was born in 1776 and was in 1799 married Brita Olsdtr. Bøyum. They got five children who grew up Ola who inherited the farm, Rasmus who traveled to America, Gorids who married Jon Endreson Lidal, Anna who married Anders Endreson Distad and Gjerterud who traveled to America and there married Asbjørn Johannesson.
Ola Arnfinnson was born in 1808 and was in 1841 married to Solveig Larsdtr. Bøyum. They traveled to America in 1848 and then had 3 children. The farm was sold to Sjur Johannesson Bøyum, and later his widow left two-thirds of the farm to his son Johannes, and one third to the son Ivar.

Bøyum farm 4

Ingebrigt was the name of the user of the farm in 1603. The farm had a land dues of 1 LAUP, 2 pd. butter and 1 skin. The rent was 10 mrk. tallow and 2 goatskin.
Around 1640, Ola Ingebriktson is the owner of the farm. His wife had the name Brita Eyvindsdtr .. Ola died early and his wife were married again with Hermund Kjellson who had the farm to 1650. Hermund was born about 1620, and had before that lived on Grønberg in Vik, but he was from there we do not know. But we know that when he came to Bøyum himself as a foreign cow in the herd.
And fight he would be more than happy to do. It was also not too far from the knife when he fought. It cost him a lot of money, but it appears that he can afford to pay. In most trouble was he after an argument with Stillaug Våtevik. They were drunk both of them, and it "fell many drunkenness words" between them, said Hans Mundal as a witness. Stillaug believed that his clan was as good as Hermund's family, and told him so. Then said Hermund that his family had not had anything with "mara" to do (severe and oppressive nuisance) so as Stillaug's family. This was serious accusations at the time, and Hermund had to front the court. A couple of times met Hermund so full that no trial could start, but finally sent Hermund a man, Per Eitorn, to face instead of himself. He humbly asked that matter to Hermund had to be viewed in light of his superfluous drunkenness. The court proposed a settlement, "when the people involved are already in the soil." And settlement it was.
Hermund died 1687. The farm had he divided between his sons do, Kjell and Hermund. Kjell got most, Hermund had to settle for some "waste land". Hermund later had his half-brother Knut Olson, son of Ola Ingebriktson but Kjell was the rightful heir to his father.
Kjell Hermudson was born in 1659. In 1701, he had three sons at home: Ingebrikt, Alf and Sylfest. Kjell was one who had to pay a special tax that was required to pay to the king during the "Great Northern War". Lasse Eitorn, Ola Hattestad and Lasse Vangsnes was the others who was obliged to do so. They were to swear an oath that they would allocate the the burden fairly. But the four refused both to swear the oath and levy taxes. The same answer to the king came from all districts of Sogn. About kids Kjell known about Ingebrigt he married to Skarestad and Sylfest was the one who got the family farm.
Sylfest Kjelson was born about 1688 and married in 1724 with Gjertrude Andersdtr. Mundal. Sylfest died in 1741. Of his children came Ola to Indre Ese, Anders got family farm and Kjell died unmarried. Their mother, Gjertrude, was married again with Jon Sjovatson Berge who ruled the farm until his death in 1751. That same year died Gertrude too. They had no children. After that the owner was Anders Sylfestson. His wife was Lussi Andersdtr. which probably came from Tenål in Vik where her siblings lived. Anders was the first self-owner of the farm. It was her brother Ola who bought first, but when he got his farm in Ese he sold to Anders. When Anders died in 1771, he holds 1 1/2 LAUP butter in the yard. This was divided between the widow and daughter Gjertrude.
In 1780, married Gjertrude with Ivar Hansson Kvamme from Kvamsøy. He got half the farm as dowry by her while she got 12 mrk. butter in Tennefossen from the groom. The mother in law, Lussi, promised them her half of the farm if they had children. Young Gjertrud died in childbirth in 1781, leaving a daughter, Gjertrud, who died soon after her mother. The father inherited from his daughter. and was thus half the farm. Later he bought the other half from the mother in law for 180 rdl .. His mother in law died in 1782, leaving 5 rdl. To the poor in Vik and 5 rdl. to books for poor children in Leikanger parish. Ivar Hansson was married again with Sigrid Mikkjelsdtr. Eitorn. They had 2 daughters, Gertrude and Ingrid. Died Ivar in 1786., and the widow remarried with Anders Torson Stølen. Anders controlled farm until his stepdaughter, Gjertrud married in 1806 with Johannes Sjurson Huke. Anders Torson then moved to Stølen, where he died in 1825. Anders and sigrid had 4 children: Ivar got Stølen, Synneva who married Per Olson Horpedal, Randi who married Nils Jonson Mundal and Kari who married Markus Sjovatson Øyjordi.
Johannes Sjurson died in 1848, and it is said that he was 73 years old. He and his wife had these children: Sjur receiving family farm and stayed on Bøyum, Unni who married Sjur Olson Huke, Sigrid who married Ola Jonson Husbø and Brita who married Sjur Mikkjelson Mundal.
Sjur Johannesson was born in 1814 and married in 1838 with Unni Ivarsdtr. Supphellen. They had 6 children: Johannes and Ivar d.e. who got the family farm, Brita who married Hans Andersson Bøyum, Gjertrud who married Lars Kjelson Hamrum, Sigrid who married Ola Anderson Kvalheim and Ivar d.y. who traveled to America. Sjur Johannesson was in many ways a pioneer. He bought more land parts as he was collected for one use, so it was more than reasonable that the farm was divided between the two eldest sons. Johannes got what we still call farm 4, while his brother Ivar d.e. got what are called farm 5.

Anders and wife

Johannes Sjurson was born in 1839 and was in 1865 married to Åsa Torsdtr. Sværen. They traveled to America in 1875, and farm on Bøyum was sold to svogeren Johannes, Lars Kjelson Hamrum who was married to Gjertrud Sjursdtr.. They later moved to Førde in Sunnfjord, and after that to Sande i Vestfold where they bought the farm Guthu. The farm on Bøyum was sold to Tor Åmundson Mundal who was married to Eli Torsdtr. Våtevik. They were childless. When Tor died the widow where married again with his brother Anders Åmundson Mundal. They had 4 children: Tor and Sigvart on Bøyum, Oddmund principal in school at Balestrand and Turid who married to Kvåle in Sogndal.

Bøyum farm 5

Anders and wife

Ivar Sjurson got this farm was born in 1842 and married in 1867 with Synneva Åmundsdtr. Skeie. They had 10 children who grew up: Åmund, Sjur d.e. and Per traveled all to America, John became a teacher in Fjaerland, Ivar got four-fifths of the farm and his brother John, the teacher, got 1 fifths. He was married to Randi Hansdtr. Tufte. Sjur D.Y. became a doctor in Beiarn (Nordland), Åmund d.y, trader in Fjaerland, Gorids were married in Bamle, Unni and Randi were unmarried. It was his son Ivar Ivarson who had the farm after his father.

Bøyum farm 6

A Åmund had this farm in 1607. Farm 6 was somewhat larger than farm 4. land rent car 2 Lauper 1 pd. 6 mrk butter. In 1624 is Åmund gone, and the widow and a Ingebrikt the farm. But all in 1630 comes a new owner, Jon Knutson. His wife named Turid Kristoffersdtr.. Jon died in 1640 and the widow acquires control over the farm. After her came her son Hans Jonson. He is mentioned once in the court records. It was in 1659, when he and many others, and even the best were sued because they could not pay all the taxes. And the bailiff was special hard. If they did not have enough money, they probably had enough silver, he thought.
How long he had his farm we do not know. But in 1680 there is a Kjell Frikson that owns the farm. He is said to be 56 years in 1701 and should therefore be born around 1645. His wife named Martha Ellingsdtr.. Otherwise there is not much we know about him. Kjell died in 1727, leaving behind his wife and 6 children. Frik who got his father's farm, Gurid who married John Heggestad Hafslo, Gertrude who married a Mark Olson. And then there was Elling, Ingeborg and Gørid. None of these were married in Balestrand as far as we can see. Ingeborg and Gørid believed had children without being married. This was a great shame that no money could cover.
Frik Kjellson was born about 1693. He married in 1721 with Anna Hansdtr. Hatlestad. She died in 1741 and Frik remarried with Brita Olsdtr. Skeie.
Of all the children he got with his first wife were only 4 who grew up. Kjell who received the father's farm, Marita married Anders Rasmunson Husbø, Gunhild Jon Olson Foss Garden and Gørid Tor Larsson Bøyum. With the second wife he had a son, John who married Kari Olsdtr. Tjønn. Frik died in 1766. In 1764 he left the farm to the eldest son.
Kjell Frikson was born in 1735 and married in 1760 with Brita Larsdtr. Stølen. They had 8 children who grew up: Lars got the farm, Frik came to Vangsnes, Rasmus had a place under Eiken, Anna married Nils Sjovatson Bøyum, agata Paul Paulson Kråkenes, Brita with Ivar Olson Viki, Gørid with Torkild Åsmundson Ø. Mundal and Marta which was probably unmarried.
Lars Kjellson was born in 1760 and married in 1792 with Kristi Olsdtr. Henjum. Lars died in 1832 and had by his widow and their children: Ola got the farm, Agata who married Åmund Lasseson Skeie, Brita with Mikkjel Eirikson Bjåstad, Kari Sjovat Knutson Bøyum and Solveig Ola Arnfinnson Bøyum.
Ola Larson was born in 1796 and married in 1829 with Kari Eiriksdtr Bale. She died in 1831, and Ola remarried with Mari Hansdtr. Tufte. With the first wife say had Ola a daughter, Kirsti, and with the last wife, Lars and Hans who went to America. The eldest daughter married Hans Endreson Eggum was born Rommøren. The father of Ola Kjell had bought out the farm in 1829, the same year he h anded the farm to Ola. In 1849 handed Ola farm to the son in-law Hans Eggum, but he sold the same year to Sjur Johanneson and Sjur Johannesson Bøyum as farm 6 was split between their farms. Sjur Johanneson sold part of its share in 1850 to Markus Sjovatson Øyjordi.

Bøyum farm 7

This farm was approximately 1680 separated out from farm 6. First user named Ola Bårdson. Land rent was 2 pd. 15 mrk butter. Ola Baardson was the son of Bård Hansson Tufte. When Ola moved to Bøyum, he must have brought with him a pair of brothers as well. For when Ola died in 1695 and widow remarried with Jon Hermundson Rauboten. Jon not only considered the stepfather of Mark Olson who must be the son of Ola Bårdson, but also to Jon and Hans Bårdsøner. As a proof of how little it would take to be sued in those days, and even by their own relatives, that Ola Baardson was sued by his uncle Stillaug Våtevik because he had taken 4 herring from the fishing net owned by Stillaug.
Jon Hermundsen was not old farm. He died already in 1703. The wife died in 1705.
Then came the new people on the farm. It was Ola Torson who in 1706 married Gunhild Olsdtr. Bøyum. She must we believe was the daughter of Ola Baardson. Where Ola Torson came from, we do not know. May he was the son of a crofter Tor Olson under Horpedal. Ola Torson leasehold farm from the bailiff in 1705. Ola and his wife had two daughters: Agata and Brita. Brita died unmarried, but Agata was first married to Lars Jonson Stølen and later with Rasmus Olson Bøyum. Mother of Agata was married again with Torstein Olson Hatlestad who had a farm on Tufte.
It came new people on a farm 7 all over again. The new user was Knut Sjovatson Horpedal. He was born approximately 1694 and was married to Gjøron Kjellsdtr. Bøyum. She died in 1755, leaving behind her husband and five children: Kjell and Marta who died before his father, Sjovat who got farm, Kari who married Botolv Eitorn and Alv who married to Våtevik. Knut Sjovaton died in 1766. The farm, he had given to his son Sjovat in 1758.
Sjovat Knutson was born approximately 1725 and was in 1758 married to Mari Andersdtr. Ulvestad. Sjovat died all in 1766, leaving the widow and a son, Anders. The widow remarried with Hans Olson Rødsæter, who received leasehold on the farm. He was the first self-owner of the farm. But then died from it all in 1775. He left behind the widow and a daughter, Kristi, and they obtained the farm. A widow with a farm was much sought after at this time, and Mari was not one to let time go by. Once she went to the altar. This time she married Anders Anbjørnson Tufte. Anders had the farm until he died in 1782. His wife died the year before. The children of Mari was, Anders Sjovatson, Hans and Anbjørn Anderssøner and Kristi Hansdtr.. The three oldest children did after their parents' death agree to manage the farm together for 8 years. Brother Andbjørn would sit with chattels. But then Kirsti married to Lars Kjellson Våtevik and he got the farm. We see nothing more to Anders and Anbjørn then, and they were probably dead, but Hans take care of his part of the farm by working. Hans paid his share of the rent on the farm to work nine days a year for Lars. If that were to happen that Hans was married and was supported, this should cease. And Hans was supported. In 1797, he married the widow of Berge farm and got a farm there.
Lars Kjellson Våtevik was born 1763. He and his wife had the farm to the in 1814 handed it over to the eldest son. Of their children got Hans the farm, Kjell came to Hamrum, Sjovat to Mundal, Ola was on Bøyum, Mari died unmarried 38 year old and Knut we can not find anything about.
Hans Larsson was born in 1790 and married in 1821 with Durdei Olsdtr. Horpedal. They had two sons that we know about: Ola got the family farm and Lars who married Sigrid Markusdtr. Øyjordi and got a farm in Langeteig, Vetlefjorden.

Ola and wife

Ola Hansson, born in 1821 and married in 1847 with Gurid Eiriksdtr. Bøyum got the farm in 1851. Of their children got Hans farm, Anna died early, Eirik died unmarried i1916 and Durdei were married in Bergen
Hans Olson, born in 1855 was married to Randi Åmundsdtr. Skeie. They had no children. They adopted her sister's son: Ola Johannesson Berge and his farm after Hans. Ola was married to Gertrude Kjellsdtr. Mundal.

Tuftane farm 1

Here it was Bård Hansson who ruled from about 1650. He was born about 1610 and was married to Gunhild Olsdtr .. When we talk about Bård, we can bring the saga of Rasmus blacksmith from Jølster. Rasmus was an outlaw who escaped from Jølster and then settled on Tufte. But then he returned to Jølster and was killed by a man named Frans Jakobson. He escaped from Jølster to Fjærland and stayed with Bård Tufte. When Rasmus was killed, there were questions about a box that he could have left on Tufte. In box should anvil to the blacksmith and 16 rdl in silver lie. They knew there was so much money because he had weighed them before he went back to Jølster. The box stood by Bård Tufte, but when they looked, the money was gone. It was obviously much discussed in the village. It happened one day, that Bård attacks his brother Hans with "hand puff and blow" and then Hans having said: "I'd complained about you bailiff for money of the blacksmith, it would cost you the gray horse". Later would not Hans admit that he had said this, but there were several witnesses who reported that they had heard it. Bård acknowledges that he had attacked his brother, but the money to the blacksmith he said he was not aware of. There was otherwise no more out of it all, and there was certainly no one belived that Bård had taken the money.
Bård Hanson died in 1670. He left the widow and five children: Ola who was crofter under Horpedal, Eirik who married Magdeli Skeie (and died in 1715), Anna d.e. who married Bendik Lunde, Solveig who was married to Njøs and Anna d.y. that we know no more about. Their mother, Gunhild, was married again with a Ola Hansom that we do not know more about. He had a son with Gunhild named Ola Olson. Ola Hanson ruled farm alone to 1720, when he got Anbjørn Andersson Mundal, that same year married Brita Trulsdtr. Ulvestad. Finally had Anbjørn farm alone until he died in 1733. He had by his three children: Ola who came to Bale, Botolv to Eitorn and Anders to Bøyum. Their mother remarried with Hans Olson Tufte. We believe that he was the son of Ola Hansson who had half the farm, but he must have been married once before with a Gunhild.
Hans Olson leasehold consumption in 1733. Both he and his wife died in 1774. He is said and have been 84 years old and his wife 78 years old. They had one daughter: Brita as in 1763 married Elling Olsen Rødsæter. He got the farm after his father in law. Elling and Mari had 3 children: Hans got father's farm, Brita as married Eirik Arneson Bøyum and Ola who died before his father. Elling died in 1814 and is said to have been 80 years old. His wife died in 1795.
Elling said to have been the first real owner of the farm, in 1772 he bought the farm at auction for 250 rdl.. We know afterwards that Elling was man who could both read and write. Hans Ellingson who in 1790 got the farm, was born in 1765 and married in 1793 with Synneva Andresdtr. Rødsæter. Of their children was Andres at the farm, Elling joined Farnes, Ola died unmarried, Synneva married Ola Ellingson Bøyum, Mari with Ola Ellingson Bøyum and Knut married to Ese.
Anders Hansson was born in 1794 and died in 1865. He was in 1827 married to Kari Olsdtr. Hamrum, widow of Mikkjel Sjurson Mundal. They had first a farm on Mundal before they came to Tufte. They had 4 children who grew up: Mikkjel receiving farm Synneva who married Endre Jonson Helleland, Steinor with Åmund Horpedal and Hans receiving farm 2 on Tufte.
Mikkjel Andersson, born in 1829, married in 1857 with Turid Ivarsdtr. Stølen. With her he had four children. Turid died in 1875, Mikkjel remarried with Brita Hansdtr. Tufte. Of the children of Mikkjel got Anders farm, Randi was married to Anders Knutson Mundal, Synneva Ola Andersson Tufte and Turid died as children. There were children with the first wife. With the second wife he had Turid and Kari both emigrated to America.
Anders Mikkjelson, born in 1864, married Magdeli Knutsdtr. Skeie. They had no children. In 1906, a small part of the farm (Elvetun) separated from the main farm. The manor sold Anders Mikkjelson son of her sister Mikkjel Andersson Mundal. He was married with Turid Olsdtr. Bøyum.

Tuftane farm 2

It was this part of Tufte the first Hans Tufte had left after he had given part of the farm to his sons. In 1650, he left the farm to son in law Jon Arneson Fjærestad who took over. Jon was married to Gunhild Hansdtr. Tufte. Land rent on the farm was 1/2 skin, 9 mrk. butter and 2 goatskin, or 1 pd. and 21 mrk. butter.
Gradually it became so much kinship on the farm that it was cruelty between them. Thus came Jon and his brother in law Bård in dispute, and Bård sued Jon for "term of abuse". We have two Jon at his word when he said that it was "happened in drunkenness" and that he "probably had talked after others of their gossip and mouth talk." There was a settlement, but the bailiff would have "8 slap on the ear and 13 mrk. of silver" in fines. Another time was the bailiff after for Jon because a cow Jon had to feeding for the bailiff. This time did not Jon meet for the court. In 1776, met Jon on council and complained that he had had "great hardship for their cattle under the glacier in summer." He had only 5 cows left. The last we see of Jon is that he was a poor man who could not pay for cows he had rented from the church, and who had died for him. It was probably this Jon Bøyum who died in 1690.
The man who now took over the farm was Lars Ellingson. He married Marit Bøyum in 1693, which was what we believe was Jon Tufte's daughter. Lars was the son of Elling Knutson Bøyum. He has been a master of secrets, because we can not find a word about him, which we otherwise it would find something about these old guys. We only know that his first wife died early, and that he remarried with Ragnhild Lassedtr. Neset from Veitastrondi. Lars had 5 children: Elling who died early, John and Lasse came to Våtevik, Marta was unmarried and Brita married Kjell Knutson Våtevik.
The widow after Lars Tufte was married again with Ola Lasseson Tenningsåsen got consumption by Lars. Ragnhild died in 1767, and Ola was married again with Gurid Samsonsdtr. Langeteig. Ola became the first self-owner of the farm. He bought in 1772 farm from inheritance after bailiff Peder Leganger, yielding 150 rdl. For the farm. Ola was had no children. In 1780, he sold the farm to Lars Johannesson Våtevik, grandson of the first wife of Ola.
Lars Johannesson was a corporal and was born in 1750. He married in 1782 with Barbara Simonsdtr. Tveiten from Vangsnes. They had many children, but only three become adults, Johannes who came to Våtevik, Simon who got the farm and Marta who married Lasse Knutson Skeie. Lars died in 1810. His inheritance was at 944 rdl..
Simon Larsson, born in 1793, was in 1815 married to Kari Hansdtr. Raubotn. Simon died in 1846, leaving the widow and five children: Lars who got the farm, Haan who married Gorids Suppellen. They had a time a farm in Skeie, but emigrated to America in 1861. Turid married Ola Jonson Skeie, Ingeborg with Lars Jensson Nordnes (they came to Eitorn). Barbara was married again with Helge Johannesson Berge.
Lars Simonson was born in 1816 and was married to Marta Johannesdtr. Våtevik in 1643. Lars and his wife moved in 1870 to Smidje on Leikanger and farm on Tufte sold to Hans Andersson Tufte at the neighboring farm.

Hans and Gurid

Hans Andersson was born in 1844 and married in 1870 with Brita Sjursdtr. Bøyum. She died in 1875, and his remarried with Gunhild Johannesdtr. Husebå. With his first wife had Hans these children: Anders who died early and Kari who emigrated to America. With the second wife he had John who got the farm, Sjur who was a teacher in the gymnasium at Voss, Olav who was headmaster in Sogndal, Hans who was a teacher at the teacher's college in Elverum, Brita as married to Distad and Randi who was married to teacher Johannes Bøyum.

Tuftane farm 3

This was about a quarter of original Tufte that was added this farm when Hans Hanson took it over around 1650. He died early, and the widow remarried with Ingebrikt Anderson Ese. Ingebrikt was born about 1630 and came to Tufte in 1659. Also he entered the broad family enmity of Tufte and "lived the war." Bård Tufte sued him for "term of abuse" of Ingebrikt owed course on "drunkenness". He died in 1695. We do not know who his wife was.
The man who then took over the farm was Knut Olson N. Bøyum. He was born about 1653, and was married two times. We do not know who the first his wife was. The second wife was Anna Nilsdtr Rud. She died in 1719 and had after his husband and four children: Ola Brita, Turid and Ingrid. None of these can we find more about after this. But Knut had a son from his first marriage, named Ola, and he took over the farm.
Ola Knutson was born in 1658 and married in 1720 with Gertrude Andersdtr. Mundal. Ola Knutson had the farm until he died in 1733. He left behind his wife and a son named Ola. We have not managed to find out more about these two and we do not know what had become of them.
The new man at the farm after this was Torstein Olson Hattestad that leasehold the farm from the bailiff Peder Leganger in 1734. Torstein had year before been married widow of Ola Torson Bøyum, Gunhild Olsdtr..
Torstein was one of the owners, when the court in 1747 would "call and scrutinize every tenant use and mark between them, and what any of the river should build the earth to preserve". The court calculated that there were 506 fathoms "embankment" that was needed to keep the river in place. The embankment had to go from Granteig to Bruavollen on one side, and from Tufte houses and down on the other side. So it had to be built a fence for Elveteig and Bjørnsøyane. Torstein their share was 38 favner and 1 alen, but he Hans Tufte got it doubled. About court his views said farmers that it was "lawful and Christian split between them."
Torstein died in 1774 and is said to have been 60 years old. After that we can see, he had only one child, his son Ola.
Ola Torsteinson was born in 1735 ob was in 1762 married to Randi Persdtr. Horpedal. She died in 1774, and Ola remarried with Synneva Olsdtr. Supphellen.
Ola was the first real owner of the farm. He bought in 1772 and gave 106 rdl. 2 ort. and 7 skill. for the farm. Ola had the farm to 1793 and died in 1802. He left the widow and eight children: Tor got the farm, Johannes came to Våtevik, Anders was a cotter under Bøyum, Torstein remained single as far as we can see, Ola came to Tenningen, Gunhild was married Christian Hansson Bøtun, Brita married Arnfinn Olson Bøyum and Synneva who was 36 years old and unmarried in 1809.
Tor Olson, born in 1762, married in 1792 with Kari Nilsdt. Bruhjell. They both died in 1809 and was childless. The farm went over to the older brother John Våtevik. He gave the farm to his son Andrew in 1811. Ola was then 14 years old, so more than in name, he could not be the owner. In 1820 sold for farm brother Knut.
Knut Johannesson Våtevik, born in 1801, married in 1826 with Magdeli Hansdtr. Tufte. They had 4 children: Hans got the farm, Gjørond married Knut Skeie, Synneva withTor Stølen and Johannes who died early.

Hans and Mari

Hans Knutsson was born in 1826 and married in 1850 with Mari Larsdtr. Ese. Of their children John got the farm, Knut, Magdeli and Synneva emigrated to America, Lars was married to Ese and Gjerterud married Frik Bøyum who bought a small piece of farm 3.
Johannes Hansson, born in 1851, married in 1873 with Kari Andresdtr. Bøyum.
After this it is their son Andres Johannesson who owns the farm. He was married to Turid Andersdtr. Mundal, daughter of Andres Knutson Mundal.


In 1701 there was no crofters under neither Bøyum or Tufte. In 1801 there were 2 crofters under Tufte, and more than one under Bøyum.
One of the two on Tufte was Ola Endreson Mæland. He was born in 1758 and married in 1783 with Brita Kolbeinsdtr. Eitorngjerde, the widow of Sjur Olson Haugen before was crofter on the smallholding. Sjur died in 1782 and left an hour and a son, Ola Sjurson, at the time a teacher at Vangsnes and Outer "Strondi". He died on the smallholding Halvteig during Tue in 1835.

Jon og Synneva

Ola Endreson and Brita who married in 1783 got 5 children, but these were only 3 that grew up. It was change that came to Njøs, Sjur who traveled from village and Kolbein who came to Menes. Brita Kolbeinsdtr. died in 1811, and Ola Endreson married again with Mari Torsdtr. Kråknes. She died all year, and so was Olagift again with Gertrude Endresdtr. Hamarnes. She died without having had children in 1847, Ola Endreson died in 1836.
Whoever came after Ola Endreson was Sjovat Knutson Suppellen. He was born in 1797 and married in 1830 with Kari Larsdtr. Bøyum. Sjovat died all in 1838 and had by his widow and two children: Knut and Randi. Of these emigrated Knut to America, and Randi married Ellend Hansson Kvam from Hafslo. The widow was married again with Ola Stilaugson Stølen got the smallholding. Ola and Kari got 2 children: Sjovat got smallholding after his father and Kristi who emigrated to America. Their mother died in 1869, while his father lived until 1875.
Sjovat Olson was born in 1842 and married in 1864 with Unni Olsdtr. Kvam (born 1836). They had 6 children that we know of. It was Ola and Unni who emigrated to America, Synneva who married Hans Olson Rødsætneset, Randi who was on the smallholding, and Kari and Olina we do not know more about.
Randi Sjovatsdtr. married Klaus Olson Porridge Neset. They had the smallholding after this.


The second smallholding under Bøyum 1801 was Anders Olson Tufte. He was born on Tufte in 1766 by parents Ola Torsteinson and his wife Randi Pedersdtr. Horpedal. Anders be in 1792 married Brita Gutormsdtr. Langeteig and they lived for a time at Torsnes but came to Bøyum in 1880. They had 5 children that we know of, but the strange thing is that we can find out more about either children or parents after 1822. They must have traveled from the area.
Another farmer who lived on the farm was Ellend Eirikson Bøyum. He was born in 1792 and was the brother of the owner of the farm. Ellend was in 1828 married to Anna Sjovatsdtr. Øyjordi who was born in 1803. Ellend was extremely careless with their domicile. It came landslide and took his house, and the people had to save themselves through the vent. So the houses were shifted forward from the hillside, but also where he was involved in an accident. In a flood, some of the houses his gone. and Ellend think it could be enough. In 1856 he emigrated with his family to America. After that we can see had Ellend and wife 7 children. Of these there were plenty more who had already emigrated il America, for there were only two children left when they traveled.


One of the sons was Arne Ellendson Bøyum. He was born in 1833 and emigrated to America in 1853. He became a priest in Arendal, Fillmore Co. Minnesota and this call had he to 1896. He was the "church council member" from 1876 to 1887 and died in 1913. He was married to Anna Supphellen.
Under farm 1 on Bøyum we now find Ola Lasseson Skeie. He was born in 1820 and married in 1856 with Gertrude Hansdtr. Tyri from Lærdal. They lived here until about 1860 and traveled for this first Lærdal and they later emigrated to America.
Jon Endreson Lidal took over this smallholding. He was born about 1830 and married in 1859 with Synneva Olsdtr Bøyum. They had 7 children. Of these emigrated Ola, EWndre and John to America, Lars got a smallholding on Bøyum farm, Johan had smallholding father some time, and Mari and Unni, we know nothing about.
After this the smallholding closed.
Under Bøyum farm 1 Lars Lasseson Bøyum cleared a new croft. He was born in 1843 and was married to Brita Jonsdtr. Husebø in 1870. They had two children: Lasse who married Olina Eiriksdtr. Bøyum and emigrated to America, and Berta who stayed on the smallholding.
Berta Larsdatter. married Stillaug Eiriksson Bøyum, and he took over the smallholding after his father in law. The father of Lars Lasseson had a smallholding on Bøyum-Svad. He named Lasse Larsson and was born in Kringla in 1817. He was married to Brita Johnsdtr. Mundal in 1844. They had 8 children. Lasse was shoemaker beside being cotter. Of their children was Lars as we have talked about over, John who married Synneva Nes Hafslo and emigrated to America, Kari who married Eric Olson Nes and got a smallholding below the Tufte farm, Anders, who also got a smallholding below the Tufte farm, and then there was Berta and Anna which we know nothing more about.
Under Farm 2 on Bøyum lived an elderly Lasse Larsson who was also from Kringla. He was born in 1796 and married in 1824 with Sigrid Larsdtr. Skarestad. They had 6 children: Lars who was unmarried, Anna married Lasse Larsson Rødsæter, Synneva unmarried, Kari married Lars Olson Ylheim who had a smallholding below the Stølen farm. They emigrated later to America.
After this lived Johannes Andersson Skeie and his wife Kristina Olsdtr. Hamre on the smallholding.


Another farmer below the farm 2 was Bjørn Olson Gjerde, Esefjord. He was born in 1823 and married in 1848 with Mari Friksdtr. Fjærestad. They lived for a long time in Teigen (Knurren) as tenants, but finally came to Bøyum. They had nine children, but how many of those who grew up, we do not know. Both parents and children emigrated to America.
The one who took over smallholding was Knut Larsson Rødsæter. He married Marta Andersdtr. Skeie born in Viki.
On smallholding Bakkane stayed Sjur Larsson Fjærestad. He was born in 1839 and married in 1874 with Margareta Nilsdtr. Hatlestad. They had two children: Lasse came to Mundal and Anna who married Hans Andersson Mundal.
After Sjur Lasseson came Jens Sjurson Ulvestad the smallholding. He was born in Eiken in 1863 and was married to Kari Mikkjellsdtr Teigen.
Nils Lasseson Bøyum cleared a smallholding below the Bøyum farm. He was born in 1852 and was married to Brita Håkonsdtr. Vangsnes, born 1856. Nils and his wife had three children: Lasse who married Hardanger, Hans who lived in Høyanger and Johanna who lived at home.

Besides those we have talked about before, we will bring some of those in the recent past have had smallholding below the Tufte farms.
Under farm 1 has Mikkjell Mikkjellson Teigen who built a cotter. Mikkjell was born in 1866 and was married to Brita Larsdtr. Bøyum. They had 3 sons: Mikkjell who became a teacher in Strandebarm, Lasse teacher in Haugesund and Edward who died while he was a theological student.
At another place in the same farm there was a time a Hans Olson Bøyum. He was born in 1840 and was in 1865 married Brita Olsdtr. Husebø. They got in 1866 a daughter, Kari, and in 1867 emigrated to America. The mother of Hans, Sigrid Hansdtr, traveled with them.
After Hans Olson came Eirik Stillaugson Jordal at the same smallholding. Eric was born in 1840 and in 1866 married Ingeborg Larsdtr. Rauboten. They had 8 children: Stillaug receiving a cotter under Bøyum farm, Kristi who was on croft, Lovisa who married Johannes Hansson Mundal, Sigrid with Knut Mundalsskreda, Kari Per Gulbrandsons Mundal, Olina who emigrated to America and married Lasse Larsson Bøyum, Solveig married at Dale in Sværefjorden, and Knut we do not know more about.
After Eirik got the son in law Nils Olsson Hamre the croft. He was married to Kristi Eiriksdtr..
Under Farm 2 on Tufte had Ola Ivarson Teigen a cotter from about 1850. Ola was born in 1822 and married in 1844 with Mari Mikkjellsdtr. Hamarnes. They lived some years in Teigen before they came to Tufte. After that we can see they got these kids: Sigrid, Ivar, Mikkjell, Ingeleiv, Ingeborg and Ola. Of these Ingeleiv married Lasse Larsson Raubotn but the others can not we see more of.
After Ola Ivarsson came Eirik Olson Nes from Veitestrondi to the croft. He was born in 1847 and married in 1874 with Kari Lassedtr Bøyum. Of their children emigrated Ola, Lasse and Anders to America, Brita married Johan Jonson Bøyum and John was a farmer at Bøyum. Under farm 3 on Tufte stayed there some time one Anders Lasseson Bøyum.
He was born in 1858 and got married down Olina Ambjørnsdtr. Munken born in 1853.
Under farm 1 at Bøyum stayed Johannes Hansson Kråkenes. He was born in 1855 and was first married Brita Bjørnsdtr. Murmurings and later with Lovisa Eiriksdtr. Bøyum. John lived first a time of Kringla and came after That to Bøyum. He had three sons who all emigrated to America: John, Hans and Sjur. Of these, Ola was a priest over there.

Øyjordi farm

In everyday language the farm was called Åijaradn and was written Ødeiord in 1667 and 1723. After the pronunciation is there "soil" in the plural, and the first thing you think of is that it's soil as a time has been deserted.
Originally Øyjordi, which we will call the farm, been a farm under Bøyum, and the farm was commonly called Bøyum until 1700. But in between the farm has also been called Ødeiordi.
In older times it was the same as owned Bøyum who also owned Øyjordi. Thus also Øyjordi been crown land as long as Bøyum was there, and it was also after Bøyum came into private hands. In fact until about 1750, when Claus Rumohr at Riksheim in Lærdal had taken over as owner.
We can not find the farm nevt until 1626, when a Johannes had the farm. From 1630 to about 1640 is a Lasse user. His wife had the name Gurid Lassedtr.. In 1650, it has come a Elling on the farm. He has probably been married widow Lasse. He is gone in 1663, when a Stillaug have received farm.
Stillaug was born about 1625. He was married two times. The last his wife called Ragnhild Lassedtr., which probably is the daughter of Lasse who had previously had the farm. In 1666 they had a son named Lasse and that probably was 5 years old. When Stillaug died, the widow married again with Ivar Andersson Skarestad.
With him went the bad with Øyjordi. He died in 1699. When his legacy was made up, it was said that he "because of events such as avalanches and tornadoes, with house and farm, man and beast and living creature, except the woman with his stepson, pitiful is dead and farm Ødejord quite in reason and all inventory is gone. It existed in the snow demise of equipment, copper, clothing and iron traps, and some stale corn that was impossible to eat, amounted to a total of 65 rdl. 1 ort". The heirs were the widow, Ragnild Lassedtr. , the mother Brita Olsdatter and 3 siblings: Sjovat, Endre and Mari. Besides Ivar where 2 of his step daughters also killed in the avalanche: Ingrid and Gyrid Stillaugaughters. They had favored service salaries for nine years: 1 rdl year and the paternal inheritance they had 4 rdl each, a total of 26 rdl .. The heirs of this was the mother, Ragnild and 2 brothers: Åmund Stillaugson and Lasse Stillaugson Hattestad. The priest Samuel Bugge claimed 3 rdl. For funeral and 2 rdl. for the funeral of the step daughters. "The ruined farm land and adjacent delights of fields, meadows, woods and fields were valued at a maximum of 36 rdl.".
It was Åmund Stillaugson, stepson of Ivar, now to start getting something out of what was left of the farm. It is not easy. The houses, he could not put up where they had stood up under the mountain, but he could move them further towards the valley to where they are now.
Åmund born about 1670 and married in 1702 with Steinor Sjovatsdtr. Horpedal. After Åmund had received the farm and managed to rebuild it, there came to and wanted to try to earn a little on it. Endre Andersson Skarestad, Ivar's brother that it went so bad with, sued Åmund that he was going to explain what right he had to the farm.
Late in 1728 they were to meet at the Assembly, and then were not Endre to see, but Ola Eiken said he would meet for Endre. He could not show any authority, so the whole case was dismissed. Åmund worked his way up to prosperity. When his wife died showed estate a hold on 162 rdl.. Åmund died in 1749. He had by his 5 children: Sjovat got the farm, Sillaug who came to Bjåstad, Brita who married John Olson Bøyum, Kari with Jon Grimson Vangsnes and Gørid with Jacob Larson Vangsnes.
Sjovat Amundson, born in 1706, married in 1736 with Synneva Nilsdtr. Mundal. In 1760, the self-owner of the farm. Sjovat bought from Aletta Leganger, widow after Rumohr, yielding 145 rdl. 3 ort for the farm. What we see or about Sovata is that he is a clever bear hunter. But he was not so good at work. When he died in 1763, he stood indebted to Sjovat Knutson Skeie 145 rdl., that the son, Knut had to pay if he wanted to take over the farm. The wife of Sjovat died in 1765. They had four children: Tor and Åmund both were in military service in Copenhagen when their father died. Tor had been there for four years, but came later home and took over the farm. Åmund died as an officer in Copenhagen in 1774. He was unmarried but had a pair heirs after him with Kari Skarestad, and she had he had contact with until recently. In a letter to his brother had his required that Kari would have 10 rdl. of the money he had benefited from a couple of men in Fjærland. The other two children of Sjovat was Nils who came to Bøyum and Sigrid who married Botolv Olson Viki.
Tor Sjovatson, born in 1736, married Anna Olsdtr. Skeie in 1765. They got the farm, until in 1790 gave it to their son Sjovat. Tor and Anna Øijordi had seven children, but only three of their sons became adults. It was Sjovat receiving farm, Lasse came to Torsnes and Åmund who came to Vårstølen.
Sjovat Torson was born in 1766. He married in 1796 with Gjerterud Markusdtr. Torsnes. In 1795, reports Sjovat for council that he, for various reasons could not marry immediately, and that he therefore deed the rights to redeem farm to his fiancee, if so would be that he died before the wedding. And Gjerterud had what was needed to redeem the farm if necessary. She had inherited 129 rdl. 2 ort and 6 1/2 pence. Gertrude died in 1810 and Sjovat was immediately married again with Gorids Olsdtr. Horpedal. Sjovat died in 1854 and the other his wife in 1847.
With the first wife say had Sjovat 5 children: Tor and Ola that both died in 20 years of age, Markus who got the farm, Randi who married Ivar Andersson Stølen and Anna with Ellend Eirikson Bøyum. With the second wife had Sjovat 2 children: Gjetrud who married Ola Eirikson Berdal and Ola who married Synneva Jonsdtr. Skeie. They emigrated to America in 1853.
Markus Sjovatson, born in 1801 married in 1830 with Kari Andersdtr. Stølen. That same year they got the farm, and they had it for 35 years. They had 5 children: Tor that was unmarried and had living conditions on the farm, Anders came to Jordal, Sjovat who inherited the farm, Sigrid who married Lars Hansson Bøyum and Gertrude who married sergeant Per Fjærestad.
Tor Markusson is the owner of the farm for 5 years, until he in 1870 handed it over to his brother Sjovat.
Sjovat Markusson was born in 1836 and married Anna Stillaugsdtr. Bjåstad. After that it was their son Markus Sjovatson that got the farm.

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